Everybody for centuries. The question is, how do

¬†Everybody dreams.Dreaming is a fundamental part of a person’s life, that have sparked people’s interest for centuries. The question is, how do dreams work? What goes on in our heads that causes us to have these sensations? How does it happen? Many experiments have been put to test, and a lot of research has been found on this specific topic.Eugene Aserinsky and Nathaniel Kleitman decided to put an decided to put an experiment to the test. these partners, wanted to examine the effect of being derived from dreaming. Or, in other words, rapid eye movement (REM). these two researchers were able to take 20 adults to participate in their experiment. The participants were asked to fall asleep normally, and then during the night the patients were woken up, and put through a series of questions.This happened 27 times total throughout the night. The main idea was to ask the patients if they had remembered their dreams. Out of the 27 people tested, a majority, in this case, 20 people were able to remember the dreams that they had had, and with full detail. The other 7, felt as if they had not been dreaming at all, and could not recall any information. William Dement, a follower of Aserinsky then began to start his own research about sleeping and dreaming. Dement started with all men participants that ranged from ages 23 to 32. These men were asked to sleep in small rooms, with small electrodes attached near their eyes, as well as on their scalp. The participants were then asked to sleep normally. For several nights, the men were allowed to sleep through the night without any interruptions or distractions, to create a baseline for each of the participants. After those 7 days, The real experiment was put into action. For the next week or so, the participants would be woken up everytime the electrodes detected that they had started dreaming. After the several days of being woken up, the participants were then put into the “recovery phase”. This phase allowed them to sleep throughout the night without being woken up. However, the electrodes still sent signals when they men started dreaming, to measure the amount of times the person started to dream. The men were then given six days off, and then asked to come back and duplicate the experiment. Although, in the second round of experimenting, the participants were woken up between dreams, instead of during. The results show, that the average amount of sleep per night, was about 6 hours and 50 minutes. The average amount of dreaming was 80 minutes, or 19.5% of the night.Michael Schredl created an experiment to investigate the things that influence dreams. Schredl started the experiment with forty participants from the student body and staff of Lion University. These participants were asked to come and have a thirty minute meeting to discuss how the experiment would work. They were told that this experiment was being tested to see if there are any connection between the outside world, and their dreams. They were asked to fill out a questionnaire that had multiple personal questions regarding their own lives. They were asked their name, age, weight and height, names of family members, what they liked to do in their free time, their job, if they had a significant other, etc. The participants were instructed to record their dreams vocally right after waking up in the morning. They were to record everything they had remembered without making any new interpretations. The patients were then asked to listen to their recording and try to make any connections from their dreams, and what was going on in their lives in the outside/walking world. This experiment was performed for a week long period. As a result, about 247 dreams were recorded in the 7 day process. Among the 247 dreams, 207 (83.9%) of them were related to the participants lives, leaving only 40 (about 17%) unrelated. Results also showed that the dreams that were related to the participants, were actually much longer and more detailed than the ones that did not relate. The participants were able to make connections, allowing their brains to remember the information and sensations they were receiving during the dreams. Another experiment run by The Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, is very similar to Schredl’s. This experiment was used to test how emotion, and experiences from the walking world can influence your dreams. However, participants were only chosen if they had gone through an experience that had caused grief in the last 6 months. In this experiment, 128 participants were tested. 103 of them being women, and 25 male. Before the actual study, the participants were asked to record their most recent dream. When the experiment started, each person was asked to record 12 to 18 dreams. Then, through random selection, people were chosen for a dream analysis. Experimenters were looking to find dreams that had traces of an individual’s past, or part of their waking life, that had to do with grief. Whether it be a feeling that they felt, an event that happened, or a person that had been deceased. 14 individuals, all being women had dreams with at least one character that had died, the rest being 13 men, and 50 women, did not. They noticed that both men and women, on the older side of the participants, were more likely to have dreams where nothing too exciting happened. There were both positive and negative elements, but nothing stood out. However, with the younger participants, there seemed to be much more going on in their dreams. Things were much more chaotic whether that be in a good or bad way. They concluded that grief had different effects on people of different ages.

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