Cellular Agriculture Mackenzie Cowan 19 January 2018Cardinal Carter CHSHFA4U1a Introduction As we look back through history at the process of agriculture it has always remained similar to the past. Grow crops and pick them or cut them down, raise an animal then kill it or use it for other products. Even to this day it still remains the same,we still rely on animals for a majority of our food, we still harvest crops just with more advanced machine. What would it be like if we changed this, instead of killing animals and harvesting crops we grew our food in a lab using only cells. This is called cellular agricultural and it will be the future of the food industry. As Winston Churchill once said “Fifty years hence, we shall escape the absurdity of growing a whole chicken in order to eat the breast or wing by growing these parts separately under a suitable medium”. The agricultural industry is changing greatly as it is moving away from the old fashioned methods into a newer, safer, reliable and cleaner way of providing food for people around the world. Cellular agricultural is leading the way for the future of food. Part A: Knowledge and Understanding What is the food-related trend? The food related trend I have chosen is cellular agriculture, cellular agriculture is used to produce agricultural from cells. There are two different types, the first being acellular products which are organic molecules such as proteins and fats but contain no cellular material. The other type is cellular are made of living cells, this could be used as way to produce foods such as meat and eggs in the future. (Cellular Agriculture, New Harvest) It allows us to grow meat by extracting stem cells from an animal. The cells culture are grown in a strictly controlled environment with a good temperature, good oxygen and the correct nutrients. The cells will grow and divide and will differentiate into tissue that is identical to meat from livestock. This will allow certain parts of an animal to be made instead of having to kill and entire animal for one small part and it will also allow peoples food to be customized to exactly what they want. This will allow meat to be produced in a much more ethical and environmentally friendly way. (Kim 2016) For the purpose of this paper I will only be discussing cellular products. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00963402.2017.1413059?src=recsys Where did the trend first begin? The idea of cellular agriculture has been around for longer than most people know as insulin discovered in 1889 was extracted from the pancreas of cows and pigs. In 1922 the first insulin treated a diabetic patient. In 1979 three scientists put the insulin-carrying gene into bacteria that would produce insulin identical to what is produced in the body. In 1990 the agrifood industry uses lactic acid fermentation in order to create rennet which is normally from the stomach of the cow. They made rennet from yeast and bacteria that was grown in a lab. In 2009 the first ever laboratory meat was created and in 2013 a Dutch researcher introduced the ‘first in vitro burger’. Since then the technology has been developing in order to make it more accessible customers. (Foussat and Conteneur 2016) https://atelier.bnpparibas/en/smart-city/article/cellular-agriculture-feed-tomorrow-s-smart-city Who has influenced the expansion of the trend? The people who have an influence on this trend are the companies that produce the meat. New Harvest is one of the largest cellular agricultural companies who are looking to “revolutionize the supply chain of animal products to continue to provide affordable and sustainable food to a growing population” (About, New Harvest) Perfect Day, is a company that produces dairy-free dairy products in a manner to provide better and tastier dairy-free options (Home, Perfect Day). http://www.perfectdayfoods.com Clara Foods is a company that is attempting to produce vegan egg whites used for baking (Who We Are, Clara Foods). http://www.clarafoods.com/aboutus/#the clerestory Memphis Meats is a company who is producing animal free meat in order to help the environment, improve animal welfare and to help improve human health (Our Story, Memphis Meats). http://www.memphismeats.com/about-us/ It is for the majority funded by private companies, not the government. Despite the growing popularity it still remains very underfunded and very expensive to produce.Is it primarily for the individual, family, society? The trend is primarily for society as whole for by using cellular agriculture it has the possibility to reduce the need to kill as many animals for our food. Factory farming and the overproduction of animals is having numerous negative effects on our environment. This includes climate change, meat specifically beef production has high greenhouse gas emissions, water issues due to the overuse of water in the factory farming industry, antibiotic resistance and food safety (Isha Datar, 2016). Cellular agriculture has the potential to help reduce all these by being able to have the same foods with less negative effects. There would no longer be a need to have millions of animals killed for human consumption. It also has the ability to help with overpopulation for as the word becomes more populated we will need more food. As animal products are not always reliable the use of cellular agriculture could help to provide more people with proper nutrient that they need in order to be healthy (Foussat and Conteneur, 2016) . It also can assist individuals in having access to the proper food they need especially when they have dietary restrictions. Cellular agriculture can provide them with more options for what they want to eat instead of being limited to a few choices. Overall cellular agriculture is for society as it will have a positive benefit on one of the major industries of agriculture. https://foodtechconnect.com/2016/04/11/cellular-agriculture-is-the-next-revolution-in-food/ https://atelier.bnpparibas/en/smart-city/article/cellular-agriculture-feed-tomorrow-s-smart-city Describes its popularity locally/globally. How is it gaining popularity? The popularity of cellular agriculture has slowly developed around the world but it is still relevantly new to the consumer world as the technology is still being developed. It is gaining popularity due to the the popularity of alternative diets. As more people choose alternative diets they need food that can fit there needs. Cellular agriculture provides a way for people to customize their food to their exact needs for nutrients and what fits there dietary needs. It can also help with the ethical issue that a lot of people have when eating meat since this would not require nearly as many animals to be killed. Overall it can provide people with more options for what they want to eat. (Kim, 2016)https://agfundernews.com/closer-look-cellular-agriculture-and-the-processes-defining-it.html Why is it an emerging trend? Cellular Agriculture is an emerging trend due to the rise of alternative diets as this has caused a bigger demand for alternatives to regular food. Often the alternatives are not as good as the actual thing. This could allow individuals with dietary restrictions to customize their food to exactly what they want it to be making it easier for people who have dietary restrictions such as not eating meat, dairy, grain etc. This option provides people with a more viable and stable option as to what they want to eat. For a vegetarian or vegan they could make food that tastes like meat without having to worry about the ethical issues that often come with eating meat. For someone with celiac disease it can provide them bread that is safe for them to consumer and won’t cause health problems. It can also assist people who have dietary restrictions due to weight such as diabetes as cellular agriculture can provide cholesterol free eggs and other fat free products. It is also an emerging trend due to instability of our current agriculture system where we rely heavily on animal and animal products for food. This will not be a viable option since it is causing major problems to our environment, the overuse of water, the overuse of antibiotics and the possibility of antibiotic resistance as well as the damage it can cause to human health. Overall the use of cellular agriculture is a growing trend and while it still requires more research it will continue to grow and gain popularity. Does the topic reflect a positive or negative trend in food and nutrition? Cellular agriculture represents a positive change in the trend of food and nutrition because of the benefit it will have on society and the environment. With the world population becoming larger and larger it is becoming unstable, according to NGO Global Footprint Network “we will need two planets to provide us with sufficient natural resources by 2030” (Foussat and Conteneur, 2016) . Through the use of cellular agriculture we will be able to stop the overuse of earth’s resources. Traditional agriculture causes numerous problems through the overuse of water, the negative impact on the environment due to greenhouse gases, the overuse of antibiotics and the inhumane treatment of animals. By 2050 the population is expected to be to be 9 billion and it will become hard to sustain and feed all those people (Foussat and Canteneur, 2016).https://agfundernews.com/closer-look-cellular-agriculture-and-the-processes-defining-it.html By 2050 we will require over 100 million animals for the agriculture industry. Approximately 25% of earth’s surface is currently being used for livestock farming and livestock farming accounts for up to 18% of all global emissions. The agricultural industry also uses absurd amounts of water taking 1670 litres of water to produce 500 grams of meat. Traditional agricultural is having a much larger impact on our environment than most people realize and it is slowly killing our planet. Cellular agriculture will provide a more stable, safer, reliable option for food helping to reduce and end the torture animals used for agriculture experience. Cellular agriculture will also be able to help reduce the number of foodborne illnesses such as E-Coli since these often occur due to infected animal feces coming into contact with the food. With cellular agriculture there would be no animals so this would no longer be as big of a concern (Khan, 2017). Cellular agriculture would require 96% less water, 45% less energy, 99% less land, produce 96% less greenhouse gases than meat production and antibiotics would be used much less than they currently are https://www.youtube.com/user/Meatthefuture . Cellular agriculture can also replace unhealthy saturated fats with healthy fats like omega-3 making food more healthy (Meat the Future,). Overall the use of cellular agriculture will be a positive change.https://medium.com/cellagri/cellular-agriculture-the-future-of-food-ab4710eced9b Part B Thinking Is the trend unique to Canada or is shared by other cultures around the world? No the trend is not unique to Canada, it is currently being test in more developed countries such as throughout Europe and North America and that is where the majority of development has taken place. Should it work properly it should spread to more countries though it is currently still underdeveloped and will be a require more research before it can spread to the consumer market.What local/global events have promoted recent interest in the trend? Events that have started to promote interest in cellular agriculture is the rise of alternative diets such as vegan, vegetarian, gluten free and more. As more people continue to choose these alternative diets they will require better sources of food to properly receive the nutrients that they require. People are looking for food that can suit their needs and cellular agriculture can provide them with food that does this. People are becoming more aware of their food and where it comes from as they become more aware of the negative environmental and health effects people will begin to look towards other methods of buying and consuming food. Cellular agriculture can provide a safe reliable and secure method of having food. Overall the rise in alternative diets has promoted interest in cellular agriculture. Is there a specific group/demographic in society for which the trend is particular important? Cellular agriculture would be important for vegetarians, vegans and other people with dietary restrictions such as celiac disease and lactose intolerance since it would allow them to customize their foods to exactly what they need. It will provide better options for vegetarians and vegans since they will be able to eat meat without the ethical issue that comes with eating meat and other animals products. It will also allow people with dietary restrictions to customize their food in order to create exactly what they need. For example lactose free milk and gluten free bread. It will also allow them to get the correct nutrients they need to stay healthy since their food can be customized to exactly what they need. It will allow people with health problems related to weight to customize foods to their need with such foods that are fat free or cholesterol free. Overall cellular agriculture would appeal to people with dietary restrictions. Does the trend affect men and women differently No the trend does not affect men and women differently it can be used equally for both genders benefit.My perspective I am very positive about this trend as I think it will have many positive changes for people’s health and for the environment. I am vegetarian and I would be willing to try this meat since it does not have the ethical issue that comes with eating meat. I would enjoy vegetarian alternatives that taste good since a lot of alternative options to regular food do not taste very good. I think it will assist in providing people with the nutrients they need even with a dietary restriction. It will be a new way for people with dietary restrictions to stay healthy instead of always eating the same thing. I do not believe that our current system is sustainable with all of the negative effects it is having on the environment, human health and animal welfare. The system we currently use needs to change as over the past century we have had large jumps in technology yet the way we get our meat has made little to no change. We kill animals in inhumane cruel ways, confining them to tight small spaces and torturing them for our own food. This system needs to change as we can no longer keep destroying our environment through the overuse of water, the emission of greenhouse gases, and the overuse of antibiotics that may lead to antibiotic resistance in the future. Cellular agriculture has the possibility to change as it is a developing trend that with further development has the possibility to provide safer, more reliable, animal free food. Overall I believe that cellular agriculture represents a positive change in our agricultural industry that will continue develop into a more usable consumer friendly trend within the next few years. What conclusions can you draw from your research about present and future practices/trends in food and nutrition? From my research on cellular agriculture the conclusions that I can draw on food trends/practices in the future is that they will have more to do with science as we move away from the traditional way of agriculture of farming and killing animals for our food. I think as technology continues to develop more food based technology will continue to develop. As the population grows we require a more safe, reliable method of providing food, cellular agriculture has the possibility to provide this. The future of food and nutrition will be moving away from the past and begin to rely more on science and technology to develop our food instead of animals. Food trends in the future will look at ways to protect the environment and human health instead of harming it. Overall food trend in the future will rely heavily on science and technology to provide safe, reliable food for all people. Is this an emerging trend that is here to stay or a simple fad? Cellular agriculture is not just a fad it is here to stay, people are now becoming more and more aware of what they are consuming. They no longer want their food to be coming from dirty factory farms or from crops that have been over sprayed with pesticides that may harm them or from animals that have been tortured just in order to provide them with food. They want food that is safe a reliable. Cellular agriculture has the possibility to provide this to people by providing them a more secure and safe way to access healthy food that fits their nutrition needs. As well our current system is unsustainable as our current system relies heavily on animals to provide us with the food that we need. But this system needs to change due to the numerous negative effects it is having on our environment, human health and the negative effects it is having on animals as well. Cellular agriculture would rely very little on animals leading to less animals being tortured and killed for our own benefit as well as it will help to reduce the overuse of antibiotics in our meat. Overall as more people becoming aware of what they are actually eating people will look to other options for healthy nutritious food making cellular agriculture a viable idea instead of just a passing fad.Part C: Application Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=naj5sL39hzE&t=11s Scholarly:http://www.mcgilltribune.com/sci-tech/fresh-off-the-petri-dish-the-emerging-industry-of-cellular-agriculture-032117/ Is there a specific bias toward the trend/topic presented in the video? Yes there is a positive bias towards the trend of cellular agriculture due to how the woman in the video who is talking is Isha Datar who is the executive director of New Harvest, one of the largest cellular agriculture companies currently. She talks very positively about her company as well as all of cellular agriculture. She discusses the negative aspects of meat such as the damage it does to the environment, the health problems that animals can cause to humans such as the risk of developing certain diseases, and the ethical issue of eating meat she uses all of this to connect back to the idea that cellular agriculture specifically related to animals is the future of meat. She mentions three different examples of cellular agriculture including egg white, beef, and milk that all are made without directly affecting the animal to show people that there is a strong possibility that cellular agriculture can work. She describes the idea of how we have already altered meat to make it bigger but instead why not just make it so you no longer need the animal.Overall Isha Datar has a positive bias towards cellular agriculture that helps to show people that it is a viable idea. How convincing is the the proof/evidence presented in the videos? The proof that is presented through both the video and article is very convincing. The article discusses the idea that food produced in a lab will require less water, energy, land, and produce less greenhouse gases than the normal way of farming. This idea is mentioned quite often in the topic of cellular agriculture based on the positive health effects it can have on our world. The video also discusses the same issues that the agriculture industries have. The video also discusses the idea of this being available to people with dietary restrictions such as allergies who may not be able to consume nut milks but also do not want to consume milk directly from a cow. The idea of cellular agriculture being used to help people with dietary restrictions if often mentioned. Both the video and the article also discuss the ethical issues that often arise with eating meat or other animals products due to the harsh inhuman conditions many animals used for factory farming live in. This is often discussed since cellular agriculture can provide a more humane way for people to access animal products. Overall the evidence in this video and article are both very convincing towards the positives of cellular architecture. How can you link the video to the major theories/ideas/concepts of the course? The major themes and concepts that are presented through this video and article relate to the course through the use of GMOs as regular food uses a lot of GMO’s in order to genetically alter the food to make it better. With the use of cellular agriculture they are hoping to reduce the use of antibiotics. As mentioned in the video, the idea of stability was mentioned. Cellular agriculture relates back to the idea of food insecurity since with cellular agriculture it has the chance to provide a safer, more reliable, healthy way to receive food helping to bridge the gap with food inequality. Conclusion Overall cellular agriculture is the future of our food as we move away from the environmental and health damaging effects of the regular agricultural industry. Instead it looks towards a future where animal products can be made safely, reliably, and more accessible to more people around the world. As the trend of cellular agriculture begins to develop into a more affordable option though more research it will become a viable solution to fix our current broken system. Overall cellular agriculture is leading the way for the future of food.