Analytical roots of analytical chemistry and some of

Analytical Chemistry is a
branch of present day Chemistry of extraordinary social significance, which
influences various regions of contemporary life, welfare and security of social
orders, advance in all fields of current innovations. Analytical chemistry is
the component of chemistry most closely related to engineering and involves in
the development of new instrumentation and new technology used to separate,
identify, and quantify matter. It is concerned with the practical applications
of chemistry, has seen increased interest in the emergence of the
mega-interdisciplinary areas of nanotechnology and systems biology. Most chemists routinely make qualitative and
quantitative measurements. For this reason, some scientists suggest that
analytical chemistry is not a separate branch of chemistry, but simply the
application of chemical knowledge.

The identification can be
qualitative (nature of the component) or quantitative (precise amount of the
component), or both. The analysis can be destructive, in which the sample is
lost, or non-destructive, in which the sample is retained. Traditionally,
analytical chemistry depended on chemical reactions of the unknown
constituents, converting them into identifiable derivatives. Newer analytical
methods include spectroscopy (ultraviolet, infrared, nuclear magnetic
resonance, atomic absorption, etc.) and chromatography (thin layer
chromatography, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography,
electrophoresis, etc.), with refinements that allow ever smaller samples to be
analysed. Other methods include diffraction studies (neutron, X-ray) and
combustion analysis. Complex samples requires some fractionation or isolation
from a sample matrix before more exacting qualitative or quantitative methods
can be applied. Fields of chemistry that rely heavily on analytical chemistry
include biochemistry, environmental chemistry, forensic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, organic chemistry, and materials chemistry.

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SESSIONS/TRACKS-

1.   
TRACK-1

Classical
methods-

 The
roots of analytical chemistry and some of the principles used in modern
instruments are from traditional techniques.  Classical method subdivided into two
methods: the qualitative and the quantitative method of analysis. 

·        
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS-

Classical qualitative analysis is performed by
adding one or a series of chemical reagents to the analyte. By observing the chemical
reactions and their
products, one can deduce the identity of the analyte. The added reagents are
chosen so that they selectively react with one or a single class of chemical compounds to form a distinctive reaction product.

 

·        
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS-

Classical quantitative analysis can be divided
into gravimetric
analysis and volumetric
analysis. Both methods
utilize exhaustive chemical reactions between the analyte and added reagents.

 

Gravimetric analysis

Gravimetric analysis involves
determining the amount of material present by weighing the sample before and/or
after some transformation. A common example used in undergraduate education is
the determination of the amount of water in a hydrate by heating the sample to
remove the water such that the difference in weight is due to the loss of
water.

 

Volumetric analysis

Titration involves the addition of a
reactant to a solution being analysed until some equivalence point is reached.
Often the amount of material in the solution being analysed may be determined.
Most familiar to those who have taken chemistry during secondary education is
the acid-base titration involving a colour changing indicator. There are many
other types of titrations, for example potentiometric titrations.

2.   
TRACK-2

Polymer Science and Materials Chemistry Practice (PSMC)-

Polymer Science and
Materials Chemistry Practice (PSMC) is composed of scientists and engineers who
focus on innovative, multidisciplinary solutions for materials, processes, and
products starting at the atomic level. The
discovery of new materials is essential to developing technology for the
future. Researchers
in our Department are synthesizing and studying new organic, inorganic, and
polymeric materials that have potential to be applied in biodegradable
plastics, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, fuel cell electrodes, magnetic
devices, catalytic converters, membranes, hydrogen storage devices, and other
applications.

·        
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

·        
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

·        
Fluorescence

·        
Differential Scanning  Calorimetry

·        
Materials Engineering.

3.   
TRACK-3

Separation techniques-

Separation techniques is a method to achieve any phenomenon
that converts a mixture of chemical substance into two or more distinct product
mixtures, which may be referred to as mixture minimum of one amongst that is
enriched in one or additional of the mixture’s constituents. In some cases, a
separation might absolutely divide the mixture into its pure constituents.
Separations variations in chemical properties or physical properties like size,
shape, mass, density, or chemical affinity, between the constituents of a
mixture.

Various types of separation processes
are: 

·        
Crystallization

·        
Decantation

·        
Sublimation

·        
Evaporation

·        
Simple distillation

·        
Fractional distillation

·        
Separating funnel

·        
Magnetic separation

·        
Precipitation

4.   
TRACK-4

Electrophoresis-

Electrophoresis describes the migra­tion of a charged
particle under the influence of electric field. The rate of
migration of particle depends on the strength of the field, on the net charge
size and shape of the molecules and also on the ionic strength, viscosity and
temperature of medium in which the molecules are moving. As an
analytical tool, electrophoresis is straightforward, fast and exceedingly
sensitive. It is utilized scientifically to concentrate the properties of a
solitary charged species and as a separation
technique. 

Types of electrophoresis-

·        
Routine electrophoresis.

·        
High resolution electrophoresis.

·        
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

·        
Capillary electrophoresis.

·        
Affinity electrophoresis.

·        
Isoelectric focusing.

·        
Immunochemical electrophoresis.

·        
Two-dimensional electrophoresis.

·        
Pulsed field electrophoresis.

5.    TRACK-5

Spectroscopy-

Spectroscopy pertains to the
dispersion of an object’s light into its component colours (i.e. energies). By
performing this dissection and analysis of an object’s light, astronomers can
infer the physical properties of that object (such as temperature, mass,
luminosity and composition). Typically one can observe two distinctive
classes of spectra: continuous and discrete. For a continuous spectrum, the light is composed of a wide,
continuous range of colours (energies). With discrete spectra, one sees only bright
or dark lines at very distinct and sharply-defined colours (energies). As we’ll
discover shortly, discrete spectra with bright lines are called emission spectra,
those with dark lines are termed absorption spectra.

6.    TRACK-6

Mass Spectrometry-

Mass Spectrometry is a powerful technique with a variable uses in biology,
chemistry, and physics, but also in clinical medicine and even space
exploration. It is used to determine the molecular weight of compounds by
separating molecular ions on the basis of their mass and charge. Mass spectrometry is employed in many
alternative fields and is applied to pure samples further as complicated
mixtures. A tandem mass spectrometry is one capable of multiple rounds of mass
spectrographic analysis, sometimes separated by some type of molecule
fragmentation. Tandem mass spectrometer allows a spread of experimental
sequences. several industrial mass spectrometers are designed to expedite the
execution of such routine sequences as selected  reaction Monitoring and
precursor particle scanning. The first perform of mass spectrometer is as a
tool for chemical analyses supported detection and quantification of ions in
keeping with their mass-to-charge quantitative relation This
technique essentially concentrates the impact of ionizing energy on particles.
It relies on substance responses in the gas phase in which sample molecules are
devoured amid the arrangement of ionic and neutral species. A mass
spectrometer creates various particles from the specimen under scrutiny,
it then isolates them as per their particular specific mass-to-charge ratio
(m/z), and afterward records the relative abundance of each ion type.

There are many
types of ionization methods are used in mass spectrometry methods. The classic
methods that most chemists are familiar with are electron impact (EI) and Fast
Atom Bombardment (FAB). These techniques are not used much with modern mass
spectrometry except EI for environmental work using GC-MS. More modern
techniques of atmospheric pressure chemical Ionization (APCI), electrospray
ionization (ESI), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and other
derivative methods have taken their place in the mass spectrometry laboratory.

·        
Electron Impact ionization (EI)

·        
Electrospray ionization (ESI)

·        
Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB)

·        
Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI)

·        
Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI)

7.   
TRACK-7

X-Ray Spectrometry-

X-ray Spectrometry is a spectrometer used for measuring the
angles of diffraction of X rays produced by reflection from a crystal or for
measuring X-ray spectra X-ray spectrometry (XRS) techniques are used for the
elemental, chemical, crystalline, structural and dynamic analysis of a broad
range of materials fulfilling a wide variety of requirements.

 

Types-

·        
X-ray emission spectroscopy

·        
x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

·        
Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS)

 

 

8.   
TRACK-8

Chromatography-

Chromatography is that the collective term for a group of laboratory
techniques for the separation of mixtures. The mixture is dissolved in an
exceedingly fluid referred to as the mobile part, that carries it through a
structure holding another material referred to as the stationary part.
Chromatography utilizes phase equilibrium partitioning principles to
isolate proteins, nucleic acids, or
little particles in complex blends in view of their varying connections with a
stationary phase and a mobile phase. There are two main types of
chromatography: Liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC). Both LC
and GC can be utilized for either preparative or investigative applications.
The separation mechanism relies on
contrasts in polarity between the diverse encourage segments. The more polar a
particle, the all the more firmly it will be adsorbed by a polar stationary
stage. Additionally, the more non-polar a particle, the all the more strongly
it will be adsorbed by non-polar stationary phase. Amid a surface adsorption chromatography process, there is competition for stationary phase adsorption sites, between the materials to be separated
and the mobile phase.

Types of chromatography-

·        
Column chromatography.

·        
Ion-exchange chromatography.

·        
Gel-permeation (molecular sieve) chromatography.

·        
Affinity chromatography.

·        
Paper chromatography.

·        
Thin-layer chromatography.

·        
Gas chromatography.

9.    TRACK-9

Advancement in Chromatography
(HPLC)-

High Performance Liquid Chromatography 
(HPLC) is a popular method of analysis for natural products because of its high
accuracy, precision and is not differed by the stability or the volatility of
the compounds. It is different and another type of column chromatography
that pumps a sample mixture or analyte in a solvent at high pressure through a
column with chromatographic packing material. HPLC has the ability to analyse,
and separate compounds that would be present in any sample that can be
dissolved in a liquid in trace concentrations.  HPLC combined
with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) have been
successfully utilized for the qualitative and quantitative determination of
various types of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, glycosides, tannins,
triterpenes, flavonoids etc. HPLC methods are used readily for the
determination of drug in biological fluids and pharmaceutical dosage forms. A chromatographic
detector is capable of establishing both the identity and concentration of
eluting components in the mobile phase stream. A broad range of detectors is
available to meet different sample requirements. Detectors respond to a
particular compound only and the response is independent of mobile phase
composition and the response of bulk property detectors is dependent on
collective changes in the composition of sample and mobile phase. Specific
detectors are UV-VIS, Photodiode array, fluorescence, and mass spectroscopic
detectors. Bulk Property detectors include refractive index, electrochemical
and light scattering detectors.

·        
Advances in Chromatography-HPLC Instrumentations

·        
HPLC Fingerprinting in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology

·        
Chromatography-HPLC Separation Techniques

10.
TRACK-10

Crystallography-

Crystallography is the science that examines crystals, which
can be found everywhere in nature from salt to snowflakes to gemstones.
Crystallographers use the properties and inner structures of crystals to
determine the arrangement of atoms and generate knowledge that is used by
chemists, physicists, biologists, and others. The research area advanced crystallography contains a number of challenging and important methods
that enable us to discover advanced details about several crystal structures. Some of the methods that are used are high pressure crystallography, electron density studies, photo crystallography, and the study of intermolecular interactions. The methods connect the theory with practice which improve
our understanding in how structures are built and why a specific material have certain properties. In the future it may be
possible to predict how a material that is not ever prepared behaves; from
its stability to properties.

Types of crystallography-

·        
Electron
Crystallography

·        
Crystallography
of Novel Materials

·        
Advanced
Crystallography

·        
Chemical
Crystallography

·        
Applications
for Crystallography

11.
  TRACK-11

Clinical chemistry analytics-

Analytical techniques play an important role in clinical
chemistry. Analytical
Techniques for Clinical
Chemistry deals with the legal and regulatory framework governing clinical lab
analysis. It also explains the latest progress in instrumentation and
applications in such fields as biomonitoring, diagnostics, food quality, biomarkers, pharmaceuticals, and
forensics.

12. TRACK-12

Forensic analysis-

The volume of data and electronic information continues to
grow at an astonishing rate. This growth is transforming all aspects of
business and changing the way companies manage and extract value from data. As
organizational complexity increases, the demand for advanced forensic data
analysis rises.
Analytical instrumentation utilized as a part of
measurable reviews has developed to end up noticeably always touchy and give
novel data and expanding levels of detail, opening up new potential outcomes in
lawful examinations. Morphologically directed Raman Spectroscopy (MDRS)
consolidates robotized molecule imaging and Raman
spectroscopy in one
instrument. Gives size and shape examination alongside substance identification,
which makes the system important for separating between different segments
inside a blend or for the discovery of contaminant particles in an example- An
unmistakable mark is given that can help distinguish a protest or substance,
decide its source or identify changes to its uprightness coming about because
of sullying. Coordinate fare of the Raman range of an obscure molecule from
Malvern’s Morphology G3-ID programming to Bio-Rad’s Know it by all ID Expert,
with its broad substance database, upgrades the data picked up by MDRS.

13. Track-13

Environmental
analytical chemistry can be
envisioned as a branch of analytical chemistry as well as a branch of
environmental chemistry. Environmental chemistry can be
defined as the study of the separation, identification, and quantification of
the chemical components of environmental importance. Since environmental chemistry can be
defined as the study of contaminant behaviour (pollution chemistry), analysis
(environmental analytical chemistry), and chemical control technology
(pollution control chemistry).

It concentrate
on specialization in advanced modern analytical methodology to confront
different difficulties in environmental and pharmaceutical industry. The
Journal covers zone, for example, analytical instrumentation
techniques for remote
estimations, assurance of trace atmospheric constituents of anthropogenic and
characteristic root, location and ID of natural and inorganic poisons in air,
water, soil determination and validation of substantial metals and
radionuclides in the environment, diverse technique of chemometrics in ecological examination.
Instances of issues which have been tended to by climatic science consolidate
destructive rain, ozone consumption, photochemical fumes cloud, greenhouse
gases and a global warming. Environmental chemistry includes some points that
incorporates astrochemistry, environmental
science, ecological demonstration, geochemistry, marine chemistry and pollution
remediation.

14. TRACK-14

Medicinal Chemistry-

Medicinal chemistry is intended to investigation of solutions
and pharmaceutical medicines. It fuses the game plan and examination of little
molecules, substances, and macromolecules, of both standard and built
origination, that can be used to cure or improve an illness condition. Medicinal
chemistry is the exploration of medications and pharmaceutical treatments. It
incorporates the readiness and investigation of little particles, substances,
and macro molecules, of both normal and manufactured starting point, that can be
utilized to cure or enhance an ailment condition. Medicinal chemistry 
draws from normal items science, natural and inorganic amalgamation, sub-atomic
displaying, and chemo informatics , and mixes in commitments from the related
fields of organic chemistry, physiology, enzymology, rheology, digestion, and
numerous others.

·        
Drug
design

·        
Pharmacognosy

·        
Pharmacokinetics

·        
Pharmacology

·        
Drug
discovery and development

·        
Pharmaceutical
formulation

15.  TRACK-15-

Pharmaceutical analysis is a process or a sequence of processes to identify
and/or quantify a substance or drug, the components of a pharmaceutical
solution or mixture or the determination of the structures of chemical
compounds used in the formulation of pharmaceutical product. The
pharmaceutical sciences combine a broad range of scientific disciplines
concerned with Clinical Research, Drug Discovery, Drug Design, Drug Delivery,
Drug Action, Drug Analysis, Pharmaco-economics, and Regulatory Affairs.
Pharmaceutical sciences are further subdivided into several specialties they
are Pharmacology, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical Toxicology,
Pharmacogenomics, Pharmaceutical chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy.

·        
Novel Approaches to Analytical and Bioanalytical Methods

·        
Bioanalytical Techniques

·        
Chromatography and Techniques

·        
Spectroscopic Techniques

·        
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

·        
Mass Spectroscopy

·        
Regulatory Issues and Biosafety Challenges in Bioanalysis

·        
Applications of Analytical and Bioanalytical Methods

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